Drug abuse and addiction are a major burden to the society. The Estimates of the total overall costs of drug and substance abuse in the United States, including health, and crime-related costs as well as losses in productivity, exceed half a trillion dollars annually. This includes approximately $182 billion for illicit drugs, $169 billion for tobacco, and $186 billion for alcohol. As these numbers are increasing, however, they do not fully describe the breadth of deleterious public health and safety implications, which include family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, child abuse, and other crimes.
Drug addiction is a complex brain disease. It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences.
Drugs that either depress or stimulate the central nervous system have long been used for non-medical reasons. Depressants include all sedatives and hypnotics such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers). These are usually taken by mouth, but can be injected. The main stimulants are amphetamines or their derivatives and cocaine, a natural component of the leaves of the coca plant. Amphetamines can be taken by mouth or injected; cocaine is either injected or inhaled through the nose. One form of cocaine (freebase, or crack) is generally smoked.
Alcohol abuse is a depressant drug that reduces social inhibitions and relaxes. Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of fruits, vegetables or grains. Alcoholic drinks consist mainly of water and ethanol or ethyl alcohol in varying strengths.
Alcohol is absorbed very rapidly into the blood stream from the stomach lining, in as short a time as 5 to 10 minutes and it’s effects last for several hours depending on the amount and how quickly it was consumed.
Women absorb alcohol faster than men because their bodies contain less water. The water dilutes the alcohol and so the same amount of alcohol will produce a higher concentration in the blood.
Women absorb alcohol faster than men.
53.9% of 8th graders have tried alcohol.
73.0% of 10th graders have tried alcohol.
81.77% of 12th grades have tried alcohol.
False positive drug screen result is a major problem. According to a report by the Los Angeles Times New Service, a study of 161 prescription and over the counter medications showed that 65 of them produced false positive results in the most widely administered urine test. Inaccurate urine drug testing which can report false positive drug test results has been called an “epidemic”.
Dronabinol, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Kidney infection, Liver Disease, Naproxen, romethazine, riboflavin are the conditions which cause false positive drug tests.
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