The availability of saliva as a specimen anytime during the day, non invasiveness of the collection procedures, rapidity in collection and testing, easy interpretation of the results, and the comfort of testing has made the oral drug testing quite popular among employers. Oratect test is the qualitative analysis of the saliva or the oral fluids for the detection of drugs of abuse namely amphetamines, methamphetamines, marijuana, phencyclidine, opiates and cocaine. It is a chromatographic immuno assay, which is a one step procedure which can be used to detect the parent drugs directly with out the need to detect the presence of its metabolites.
The oral cavity is constantly bathed in the natural defense system called the saliva. It is one of the main fluids secreted from our body. Apart from its functional purposes, it also serves to be a medium for the excretion for the drugs that enter into our body. Every drug that enters into our body gains access to the salivary gland and is secreted into the oral cavity through the salivary ducts; the mucous membranes in the mouth absorbs substances before the drug could reach the stomach or intestines; moreover, it is quite possible to detect parenteral administration of drugs in saliva because drugs tend to show up through the mucous membranes along Continue reading
Tricyclic anti depressants are a group of congeners of imipramine, which inhibits noradrenalin and serotonin transporters in the neurons. The effects differ in normal individuals and depressed individuals. These drugs are tested using test cards, the reagent strips of which work based on lateral flow chromatographic immunoassays that respond to cut off concentrations of 1000 ng/ ml. Card drug tricyclics are approved by the FDA and are easy to perform and they interpret the results. The accuracy rate is around 97%.
Propoxyphene drug screen is a qualitative analysis for the detection of the analgesic drug propoxyphene in the body of a suspected individual. It is an in vitro diagnostic test based on the technique of lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay. Propoxyphene is an opiod analgesic which is used as a pain reliever therapeutically but is a potent drug of abuse. It is chemically related to methadone.
Propoxyphene drug screening is a one step drug testing that requires only 5 minutes for getting accurate results. Presence of propoxyphene in the body is confirmed by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy tests. The test strips must be kept in the closed round vial until use. The round vial must be immediately closed tightly once the test strip is removed. The entire testing procedure is simple. All you have to do is to collect the test urine and store it appropriately. Then the test must be performed following the instructions carefully. The urine has to be collected and stored in sterile containers top prevent adulteration and contamination. The absence of such sterile conditions leads to false positive and false negative results.
The next step of propoxyphene screen is to maintain the test sample at room temperature. The urine sample can be collected at any time during the day and must be clear. Any visible impurities must be filtered, precipitated, or centrifuged to get a clear urine sample. Then take a single strip and dip into the sample urine vertically. It must be immersed up to the maximum limit and not beyond that for duration of 10 to 15 seconds. Then place the test strip on a flat non absorbent surface and wait for the test lines and control to appear.
The results for propoxyphene screening are interpreted by the appearance of the color on the strips. The appearance of both control and test color lines indicates a negative result whereas the appearance of control lines alone indicates positive drug test. Failure of the appearance of the control lines is considered invalid. These results must be read within 5 to 8 minutes but not after that.
The propoxyphene testing urine can be stored at lower temperatures and can also be frozen. But they have to appropriately conditioned for the test. The test strips come in round vials with desiccant cap and package insert. Do not use the test strips beyond the expiry date.
Propoxyphene is an opiod with chemical similarity to methadone and used as an analgesic. They mainly act by blocking the opiod receptors that carry pain signals to the brain. But they have additional effects like producing euphoria. Though initially started as an analgesic, they progressively cause drug dependence and produce harmful effects. It is largely due to the tolerance gained by the system against the drug. Finally they lead to addiction resulting in severe withdrawal symptoms. Propoxyphene drug test is lateral flow Immunochromatographical assay for the qualitative detection of propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene in urine.
Buprenorphine is a synthetic thebaine which is highly soluble in lipids. It is a potent analgesic with potency 25 times higher than morphine. It is indicated for long lasting painful conditions like that of cancer pain. A derivative of Buprenorphine is suboxone which is a combination of Buprenorphine HCL and Haloxone HCL dinitrate. These are opioids antagonists which on repeated use produce drug dependence. Suboxone drug test is done to reduce illicit use of these opioids and to help patients stay in treatment. This is primarily done by reducing the withdrawal symptoms and by reducing the craving for the drugs.
Being aware of ovulation is important for those that are trying to get pregnant and also for those that are trying to avoid pregnancy. A peak LH hormone level is an indication of ovulation. The LH test is one of the methods to identify LH hormone level that can give an indication of ovulation. If one is able to detect the period of ovulation, they can choose to use contraceptive methods during that period to avoid pregnancy or for those that are trying to get pregnant can make use of the ovulation period to get pregnant.
Barbiturates are popular sedatives and hypnotics whose therapeutic usage has been discontinued since late 1960s owing to the adverse effects of barbiturates. They produce CNS depression in a dose dependent manner starting from sedation, sleep, and anesthesia and finally progressing to coma. The detection of barbiturate can be done by the barbiturate test only if the level of barbiturate in the sample is more than 300ng/ml.
Menopause is the period of women’s reproductive life when there is a cessation of the ovarian functions and decreased female sex hormones. This is characterized by several physical, psychological and emotional consequences. There are vasomotor disturbances, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis, dermatological changes, psychological and cognitive disturbances, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. You can know when you have attained menopause by using at home menopause test. Usually menopause sets in around the age of 40 and above. The best indication is the missing of periods.
You can keep a routine follow up of your reproductive status using the easy to use testing kits. You can d this without going to the doctor at the comfort of your home once you see any of the symptoms of menopause. Earlier, the technique consisted of blood test for menopause where the samples would be collected in the laboratories and tested for the level of FSH. It would take around 3 to 5 days. Elevated levels of FSH mean that the perimenopause period has begun. This would later on go for second screening to confirm the onset of menopause. Now you have home based menopause kits that can be done entirely at the privacy of your home.
Some of the earliest indications for the onset of menopause are missed and irregular menstrual cycles, interrupted sleep, irregular bleeding during periods, mood swings, depression, unexplained fatigue and vaginal dryness. The reason for carrying out blood tests for menopause is that elevated FSH levels are the reliable information rather than the above mentioned conditions. The above said indications may also occur due to premature ovarian failure, destruction of ovaries due to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and presence of autoimmune antibodies against ovaries.
Once the onset of menopause has been confirmed then you can take adequate care menopause test to protect yourself from the various health hazards related to menopause. You can also go for HRT or Hormone replacement therapy if needed. The home based testing kits for menopause helps you to keep a track of the estrogen levels in the blood.
FSH is the substance that is measured for confirming menopause which is the estrogen menopause test. The levels of FSH and estrogen are inversely proportional. Higher the FSH levels, lower will be the estrogen levels and vice versa. Sometimes certain surgical procedures like hysterectomy and ligation of fallopian tubes may cause early onset of menopause in women.
On site drug test is needed when the presence of illicit drug has to be proved in a suspected individual. The reason for the requirement for such tests is that by the time the samples are taken to the laboratory the drug may spontaneously disappear or the sample may lose its properties. Moreover it would also be expensive and time consuming. The on site drug testing techniques helps to overcome all these impediments involved in drug testing.